school and education




UZ Celebrates Senior Academic Staff Promotions


The University of Zimbabwe community wishes to congratulate 23 members of the academic staff who were recently promoted to the full professor, associate professor and senior lecturer grades.  The promotion criteria were rigorous, making the promoted academics compare with the best on the continent and globally.  Most of the promotions are with effect from 1 May 2018.  With the new promotions, the University now boasts of 148 professors.  

Speaking at a ceremony held at the University on 20 June 2018 to celebrate the promotions, the Vice Chancellor of the University of Zimbabwe, Professor Levi Nyagura said, ‘On behalf of the University and my own behalf, I would like to congratulate these outstanding individuals for their well-deserved promotions. Encouraging excellence is a core value of the University that needs to be followed up with recognition and reward.  These promotions indicate not only to the individuals themselves but also to the wider scientific community the strength of their contributions as well as the calibre of the academic staff at the University of Zimbabwe.  The University is dependent upon the personal growth and career attainment of its academic staff to develop, strengthen and fulfil its mandate.  The University’s successes as a research intensive institution, and therefore, its current top position among the best universities on the continent and the globe are in no small part, a reflection of the number of individuals whose hard work is reflected in our promotion figures.  

The newly promoted academics are:

Promoted to Full Professor  

  1. Professor Margaret Z Borok
    is a Professor of Medicine at the University’s College of Health Sciences where she has worked for many years.  She was trained in internal medicine at the Godfrey Huggins School of Medicine, now the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences and has been involved in the care of HIV patients in Zimbabwe since 1991.  Most of her professional career has been involved in the clinical care of these patients, particularly those with AIDS-Kaposi sarcoma. She has been the core physician at the KS Referral Clinic at the Parirenyatwa Hospital for over ten years and has been involved in collaborative operational and clinical research with the University of Colorado Denver during much of this time. 

  1. Professor Nyasha Chin’ombe
    is a molecular vaccinologist and teaches microbiology and biotechnology to medical and science students. He graduated with a BSc Honours degree in Biological Sciences in 1993 and was awarded the University of Zimbabwe Book Prize and Hiram Wild Memorial Prize for academic excellence as a student.  He also holds a Master of Science degree in Biotechnology (University of Zimbabwe) and conducted his research project on animal genomics at the International Livestock Research Institute.  He worked for some time as a research fellow in the Chemical Pathology Department of the University of Zimbabwe and was later awarded a South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative scholarship to pursue a PhD in Medical Microbiology at the University of Cape Town.  His doctoral research interrogated the development and testing of attenuated recombinant bacterial-based HIV/AIDS vaccines. After graduation, he was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship under the South African Vaccinology Research Chair programme to do further research on DNA-based HIV/AIDS vaccines.  He was awarded a second postdoctoral research fellowship at Emory Vaccine Centre in the United States. After a stint at Emory University, he returned to South Africa to take up another postdoctoral fellowship in pharmacogenomics at the University of Cape Town.  Professor Chin’ombe joined the University of Zimbabwe as a lecturer in 2012 in the Department of Medical Microbiology and was promoted to the senior lectureship level in 2014 and to the associate professorship level in 2016.  His main areas of specialization are molecular biology, medical virology and vaccinology. He is currently setting up a medical biotech start-up and a Pan-African vaccine research institute to train the next generation of African vaccinologists. 

  1. Professor Vupenyu Dzingirai
     joined the University of Zimbabwe in 1990 as a teaching assistant in the Department of Sociology where he had studied for an honours degree.  He later studied for an MPhil degree in the same department, graduating in 1992.  In 1993, he registered for a Dphil degree at the University of Zimbabwe, graduating in 1998 with a thesis located in applied social sciences.  He has researched widely and taught on several courses on natural resources management in Africa

  1. Professor Tinyiko Halimani
    (BSc, MPhil (UZ), PhD (Stellenbosch)) joined University service in April 2001 as a research assistant.  He became a permanent full-time lecturer in 2006. He was chairperson of the Department of Animal Science from 2009 to 2012. He was promoted to senior lecturer in 2012 then associate professor in 2016.  Professor Halimani is a geneticist with specific interest in the utilisation and conservation of local farm animal genetic resources. He has carried out extensive research in the subject area, supervising 9 PhD, 18 masters and 47 bachelor’s candidates in the process. He is a participant in various research collaborations involving Universities in Zimbabwe and South Africa.  Professor Halimani has published 46 peer reviewed journal articles and 12 invited or occasional publications in a range of journals. He is currently the deputy dean of the Faculty of Agriculture. He is also a technical editor for UZ Publications.

  1. Professor Mhosisi Masocha
    is a Professor of Geospatial Science at the University of Zimbabwe.  He specialises in the environmental applications of cutting-edge Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Global Position System (GPS) & Earth Observation technologies.  His recent research interests include: invasive alien species management, remote sensing of water quality, crop yield forecasting, wildlife monitoring from space and modelling transmission dynamics of diseases in a changing climate.  He has published over 55 papers in peer-reviewed international scientific journals. Some of the new GIS-based mathematical models he co-developed are now being widely used for invasive alien species management and for geographically targeted disease surveillance and control. Professor Masocha is also a registered cattle breeder running a family-operated Brahman stud business in central Zimbabwe. His primary focus and speciality is to develop and supply commercial cow-calf producers, an efficient, low-cost, fertile, and highly adapted genotype of Brahman cattle with quiet temperament that can survive and produce on natural forage with no external inputs to boost profit per acre and not per cow.

  1. Professor Stanley Mukanganyama
    joined the University of Zimbabwe in the Department of Biochemistry as a Teaching Assistant on 01 April 1991 and enrolled as a part-time MPhil student.  In 1996 he converted his studies to DPhil which he carried out as sandwich programme with Uppsala University, Sweden.  He successfully completed his DPhil studies in 1999.  In February 2001 he was appointed as a lecturer in the Department of Biochemistry.  He was promoted to Senior Lecturer on 2 February 2008 and to the Associate Professor grade on 1 January 2013.  Professor Mukanganyama served as the acting Chairperson of the Department of Biochemistry from July-November 2011.  He was appointed the substantive Chairperson of the Department of Biochemistry from 1 November 2011 until present.  He is the past President of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Society of Zimbabwe (BMBSZ) from 2010-2013, and is the In-country President of the Natural Products Research of Eastern and Central Africa (NAPRECA) Zimbabwe Chapter.  Professor Mukanganyama is also the Acting Secretary-General of the Federation of the African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB).   His area of specialisation is Biochemical Pharmacology where he is involved in the scientific evaluation and validation of efficacy of medicinal chemicals from plants from Zimbabwe. 

  1. Professor Brighton Mvumi
    holds a PhD in Postharvest Entomology from the Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom; and an MPhil in Agriculture (Postharvest Science & Technology) and BSc in Agriculture (Crop Science) both from University of Zimbabwe.  He has provided strategic technical and scientific inputs to R&D agency programmes including the 11-year DFID Crop Post-harvest Programme (design, implementation, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of projects); the African Postharvest Losses Information System (APHLIS) Network; the development of the FAO Postharvest Loss Assessment Methodology and Food Loss Reduction Programmes in several African countries. He has conducted a number of postharvest training programmes for technocrats and scientists in east, central and southern Africa. He collaborates with scientists in Europe, USA and many African countries.  In the last 11 years, he has worked on evaluation and optimisation of pesticidal plants in controlling field crop, livestock and stored-product pests in sub-Saharan Africa’s smallholder farming sector.  His current research focuses on developing effective and sustainable technologies for food postharvest handling and loss reduction, management of agricultural pests and understanding the effects of climate change and variability on postharvest systems and pest dynamics in semi-arid areas and how communities are responding.  His research work is published in over 51 peer-reviewed journal articles, 8 books/book chapters and 18 edited proceedings.  He is currently a core member of the African Postharvest Information Systems (APHLIS) network; a steering Committee Member of the Postharvest Technical Working Group and the Plant Health Committee both in the Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Rural Resettlement; and a member of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa.

  1. Professor Sunanda Ray
    first joined the Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZCHS) in 1992 as a lecturer and research fellow.  She was involved in the early days of establishing the Masters in Public Health (MPH) in the department. She was also part of the research team that set up the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project, a collaborative research project between UZ and Stanford University, USA as co-principle investigator and Director. She left UZ to work for her Fellowship at the Faculty of Public Health, Royal College of Physicians UK, (1995-1999). Professor Ray has worked in a range of public health environments including 2 years at Murambinda Mission Hospital, Buhera (1984-85), 6 years for Harare City Health Department (1986-1992), and as Executive Director of the Southern Africa HIV/AIDS Information Dissemination Service (2000-2003). She has worked for the British National Health Service as a Consultant in Public Health Medicine (2003-2009) and was part of the academic team that established the new medical school at the University of Botswana (2009-2012) where she set up MMed programmes in Public Health Medicine and Family Medicine, as well as teaching integrated public health to undergraduate medical students.  Her main research and teaching interests have been in sexual and reproductive health (including HIV), maternal and child health (including prevention of maternal and neonatal mortality), health systems, quality improvement and health professions’ education. She has been an educator for more than 35 years, and is especially interested in how to mentor health professionals to become lifelong learners. She also mentors young researchers in publishing and is an assistant editor for the African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine.

  1. Professor Lloyd Sachikonye
    joined the University of Zimbabwe as a Research Fellow in 1990 after obtaining a Ph D in Political Studies from Leeds University, United Kingdom in 1989. He served in the University’s Institute of Development Studies (IDS) where he was active in research in Labour and Agrarian Studies, and taught on its Industrial Relations programme. He is now based in the Center for Applied Social Sciences (CASS) in which he contributes to its research and post-graduate teaching in Social Ecology. Promoted as an Associate Professor in 1998, Professor Sachikonye has been prolific with over 70 publications. Amongst the 10 books that he has authored or co-edited was an award-winning title on Labour Movements in Africa published in 2010.  In recognition of his intellectual contributions, Professor Sachikonye was appointed an Honorary Professor in the School of Development Studies at the University of Kwazulu Natal in 2015. He is also a member of the Transformation Research Unit of Stellenbosch University. Professor Sachikonye serves on editorial boards of ten international scholarly journals including the Global Labour Journal, Africa Development and the Review of African Political Economy. He has undertaken advisory study assignments periodically in the past 15 years for the African Union Commission (AUC), United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). In addition, Professor Sachikonye serves on boards of a number of Zimbabwean non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are engaged in development policy advocacy, farm worker welfare, trade union research, youth and women’s rights.

  1. Professor Mufuta Tshimanga
    is a professor of public health medicine at the University of Zimbabwe. Since medical graduate school and as a public health physician, Professor Mufuta Tshimanga has focused on developing teaching and public health research approaches for master level trainees to improve curricula for the advance of field epidemiology core-competencies required to run public health programs in the African region. As the Director of the Zimbabwe FETP since 1997, he has guided the training of over 230 public health specialists who occupy senior management positions both in public and private sectors and constitute the network of public health practitioners who run public health programmes in Zimbabwe. This has assisted the ZimFETP program to be accredited in 2017 by TEPHINET. As an academic faculty member, he has supervised over 1000 research projects using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Most of these projects’ findings have been used primarily by the Ministry of Health and City Health authorities to improve the delivery and effectiveness of their public health systems. As a Director of a ZICHIRE Project, a local research entity, in Zimbabwe, he has collaborated with many US research institutions and held grants on multiple studies over the past 15 years. He has successfully been involved in more advanced HIV prevention research including follow-up studies on risk compensation after VMMC and clinical trials of medical devices for pre-qualification by World Health Organization for use as alternative method in male circumcision in resource-constrained settings. Following these studies, he has published over 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He is now also a key implementer of the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) Program in 6 districts to support the national effort to scale up VMMC services in Zimbabwe. As a member of AFENET (African Field Epidemiology Network) board of Directors since its foundation in 2005, he has developed expertise in FETP implementation and has effectively contributed to the establishment and maintenance of functional FELTP to continue building capacity to address epidemics and other major public health problems in over 23 African Countries to date.He is the current Chairman of AFENET Board and Director of Zimbabwe FETP.


Promoted to Associate Professor

  1. Professor Mutsawashe Bwakura-Dangarembizi
    embarked on her academic career with the University of Zimbabwe as a lecturer in 2002 and was promoted to Senior Lecturer grade in 2013. Her clinical and research interests include Paediatric HIV, its associated co-morbidities and child undernutrition. She has over 10 years experience in conducting multi-centre paediatric HIV research whose overarching goal is to generate evidence for the best ways to treat HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings and improve their quality of life. She was recently awarded a Wellcome Trust Training Fellowship to study the outcomes of young children who suffer severe malnutrition with a view to developing targeted interventions that will optimize their long-term growth and development potential.

  1. Professor Nehemiah Chivandikwa
    is the former chairperson of the department of Theatre Arts at the University of Zimbabwe.  He holds a PhD in applied theatre and development communication from the University of Zimbabwe. Currently, he is shifting his research focus to include television, participatory video and community radio as sites for participatory development communication in interdisciplinary contexts that involve public health promotion and civic engagement.  He has a particular interest in the use of participatory theatre and media technology in the context of impact-oriented/research on marginalized groups, such as women, youths and disabled communities.  He has been involved in a number of practice-oriented research projects with marginalized communities in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa and the USA.  A number of articles and book chapters resulting from these projects have been published in international, regional and local journals and book projects.

  1. Professor Felicity Gumbo
    is 41 years old and a practising Paediatrician. She graduated as a medical doctor in 2000 and completed her Masters degree in Medicine (Paediatrics) with the University of Zimbabwe in 2006. She then graduated with a PhD with the University of Oslo in 2012. Her area of interest is mother to child transmission of infection including HIV, CMV, Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis. She has special interest in Paediatric Pulmonology and Intensive care.

  1. Professor Clara Haruzivishe
    holds a PhD in Nursing (MCH/Midwifery major) (USA), a Master’s in Adult Education(UZ), a BSc Nursing Science (UK), a diploma in nursing (UK), a diploma in midwifery(UK) and a diploma in nursing and adult education(UZ). She has provided leadership in grants management and research and devoted her time in coordinating an innovative method of teaching DPhil students in a limited setting.  She has 50 publications in referred journals. She is active in the following University committees: Staff development, Senate Subcommittee on Associate Affiliate Status and College Regulation committee.  She was also appointed as a member of the Zimbabwe Nurses council examination committee (2015-2020). She is a member of the Faith Ministries Medical Missions. She has been nominated by the Ministry of Health for consideration for the Princess Srinagarinda Award (Thailand) 2018, for her contribution to nursing and midwifery education and research.

  1. Professor Venancio Edward Imbayarwo-Chikosi
    holds a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Animal Science (Stellenbosch University), Master of Animal Science (University of Malawi) and a Bachelor of Agriculture Honours degree in Animal Science (University of Zimbabwe).  His post-graduate studies focused on the quantitative aspects of dairy cattle breeding with emphasis on inheritance of functional traits (MSc) and functional longevity (PhD) in dairy cattle.  He joined the University of Zimbabwe on the 2nd of June 2008 as a temporary full-time lecturer and was appointed permanent full-time lecturer in 2009.  He was promoted to Senior lecturer on the 1st  of January 2016.  Professor Imbayarwo-Chikosi specialises in animal breeding, quantitative genetics and the application of biostatistical principles to the animal sciences.  He has been involved in a number of collaborative research initiatives with government departments, private and international institutions.  He has also supervised several undergraduate and postgraduate students across the wider animal science spectrum. To date, Professor Imbayarwo-Chikosi has over thirty (30) research articles in refereed international journals and several conference papers delivered at both local and international conferences

  1. Professor Star Khoza
    joined the University of Zimbabwe as a staff development fellow in 2001 and was appointed as a permanent full-time lecturer in the Department of Clinical Pharmacology in 2002. He holds a Bachelors of Pharmacy (UZ), MSc Clinical Pharmacology (UZ), MSc Clinical Epidemiology, and a PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.  His research interests are in pharmacovigilance, drug safety, blood transfusion safety, diabetes, HIV and AIDS, and medication adherence. He is the current coordinator for the MSc Clinical Pharmacology programme. He is the current chairman of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Professor Rooyen T Mavenyengwa
    joined the University of Zimbabwe, Department of Medical Microbiology in January 2002 as a Lecturer.  He holds a BSc (Hons) in Biological Sciences, MSc in Medical Microbiology, both from the University of Zimbabwe in addition to a Post Graduate Certificate in Education from the same institution.  He graduated with a DPhil from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway in 2012. Professor Mavenyengwa was promoted to Senior Lecturer Grade on 1 January 2013. He is the first African scholar to use molecular techniques to characterize Group B streptococcus (GBS) which causes infections mainly in pregnant mothers and children.  He has published numerous research articles in peer-reviewed high impact journals and has presented his scientific research work at local, regional and international conferences and symposia across the globe. His main research highlight is the discovery of the new surface-anchored protein in GBS called the “Z” protein. He has since published a book on molecular characterization of Group B Streptococcus. His other research interests include antibiotic resistance testing, HIV and AIDS, and other viruses of public health importance, Transfusion Transmissible infections (TTIs), Cryptococccus and Tuberculosis. He has worked as visiting scholar at the Namibia University of Science and Technology. Professor Mavenyengwa has received other numerous academic, research and travel awards in recognition of his outstanding contribution to Medical Microbiology scientific research. His main area of specialization is Medical Bacteriology focusing on Streptococcology and Molecular Biology which he passionately teaches to both undergraduate and postgraduate medical students. He coordinates and facilitates the training of the HIV Rapid testing course in partnership with the Medical Laboratory and Clinical Scientists Council (MLCSC).  He also leads a vibrant team at the WHO-funded Zimbabwe National Virology Laboratory which is mandated by the Ministry of Health and Child Care to carry out routine diagnostic and surveillance on Polio, Rubella, Measles and Rota viruses for Zimbabwe and Malawi. He was appointed Chairman of the Department of Medical Microbiology on 1 October 2016, the appointment which he holds to date.

  1. Professor Billy Mukamuri
    is the current Chairman for the Centre for Applied Social Sciences, a position he has held for the past 6 years. He first joined the University of Zimbabwe as a Temporary Full-Time Research Fellow in the Institute for Environmental Studies, 1995-1999. He joined the Centre for Applied Social Sciences in 2001 a Permanent Full-Time lecturer and got promoted to Senior Lecturer position in 2004.  He has published over 30 articles in referred journals and book chapters. Apart from teaching and supervising post graduate students, Professor Mukamuri pioneered research in African Traditional Religion and environmental protection; local-level institutions and management of indigenous woodlands, and impacts of macro-economic policies on management of forests by communal area residents. His recent research focus is on policy; people-livestock-wildlife interface (ONE HEALTH); collective management of natural resources; technology adoption; scenario planning; climate change; resilience building; capacity building; land reform; intergenerational issues; changing family values and livelihoods in both urban and rural contexts. He is the Leader of Natural Resources Institutions and Governance Petal of the Research Platform for Partnership in Production (RP-PCP), a joint initiative of the University of Zimbabwe (UZ), National University of Science and Technology (NUST) and Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE) which supports regional and international students to undertake post graduate research in Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs).

  1. Professor Herbert Mushangwe
    (李开明) is currently the Director of the Confucius Institute and former Chairperson of the Department of Foreign languages and Literature (2016-2017). He joined the University of Zimbabwe in 2007 as a Teaching Assistant in the Department of Theatre Arts.  He was awarded a Chinese Government Scholarship to pursue Chinese Language and Masters in Theatre Arts.  Upon completion of his Chinese studies he pursued Masters in Chinese Linguistics and Applied Linguistics.  In 2011 he was appointed as a temporary full time Chinese lecturer in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature (then Modern Languages).  He became the first Chinese local teacher to teach Chinese in Zimbabwe at University level. In 2012 he was awarded another scholarship to pursue doctoral studies in Chinese Linguistics and Applied Linguistics.  Upon successful completion of his Ph.D he was appointed as a core Chinese teacher in the Confucius Institute and later he was promoted to the Senior Lecturer Grade on the 1st of September 2015. Professor Herbert Mushangwe is one of the compilers of the first Shona-Chinese dictionary. He also compiled the first resource book for learning Chinese characters.  He has published more than 20 articles in the area of teaching Chinese as a second language, Chinese phonetics, Shona-Chinese comparative phonology and onomastics.

  1. Professor Maxwell Sandada
    is a holder of BSc Economics (Honours) degree (UZ), MSc Strategic Management (Chinhoyi University of Technology), PhD in Business (Vaal University of Technology, South Africa).  He started his academic career at Vaal University of Technology (VUT), South Africa in January 2008 and served until December 2013. He is a recipient of the Faculty Research Award and the Research and Teaching Award at VUT in 2012 and 2013 respectively. He returned home to join the University of Zimbabwe’s Graduate School of Management (GSM) in 2014 as a permanent Senior Lecturer. In August 2016, he was appointed as a Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Commerce, the position that he currently holds. Professor Sandada is well published in the areas of Marketing, General and Strategic Management. To date, he has published over thirty (30) research articles in top refereed international journals. He has also attended conferences and held lectures in several regional and international universities. He is also a respected expert adviser on programme design, assessment and evaluation as he has over the years, offered notable contribution to the Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education (ZIMCHE) on various assignments. Over the past three years, Prof. Sandada has also been a consultant to the following organizations in the area of Customer Satisfaction Index: (1) Postal and Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Zimbabwe (POTRAZ) (2015), (2) Public Service Commission and (3) Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission Distribution Company (ZETDC).

  1. Professor Moses Zimba
    is a Medical and Forensic Entomologist. He has a PhD degree in Medical Entomology from University of Zimbabwe and an MSc in Medical Entomology and Applied Parasitology from University of Liverpool, School of Tropical Medicine.  He joined the University of Zimbabwe as a lecturer in the Department of Biological Sciences on 1st June 2011.  He was promoted to the Senior Lecturer grade on 1st June 2014. In 2016, he was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study Forensic Science at Texas A&M University. Currrently he teaches MSc courses in Tropical Entomology, Forensic Science and Ethics and Forensic Entomology. As a Medical Entomologist he has consulted for Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC), World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Agriculture and the private sector. He has vast experience in the designing, implementation, auditing, monitoring and evaluation of malaria control programmes including training and research in vector bionomics, bioassays, indoor residual spraying, insecticide resistance monitoring, insectary design and maintenance.


Promoted to Senior Lecturer

  1. Mr Munyaradzi Gwisai
    joined the University of Zimbabwe as a lecturer in 1994. He is a holder of an LLBS (Hons) (UZ) and LLM (Columbia) and recipient of the Fulbright Scholarship. His areas of specialization include Labour Law, Jurisprudence and Legal History. Mr Gwisai is the Faculty of Law Senate representative, He holds the position of Chairperson of the Zimbabwe Labour Centre, and is a member of the Law Society of Zimbabwe.

  2. Dr Ismail Ticklay
    did his basic medical training at the University of Zambia. He came to Zimbabwe in 1985 and worked as Senior House officer in Harare and Parirenyatwa Hospitals.  He completed his Master of Medicine in Paediatrics with the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZCHS) in 1994.  He worked as a Government Paediatrician since then. He was Head of Division of Paediatrics at Harare Hospital until September 2007.He joined the University Of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences on 1st February 2008 as a Lecturer. He is a member of the Paediatric Association of Zimbabwe, the National Certification Council (NCC) and the National Cancer Registry. His research interests are Diabetes, Paediatric Palliative care, early infant male circumcision and ambulatory medicine especially Emergency Triage Assessment and treatment (ETAT).


Department of Science and Mathematics Education - Catching them young: Science and Technology at Primary School Workshop


Department of Science and Mathematics Education - Catching them young: Science and Technology at Primary School Workshop

Date: Friday 6 July, 2018

Venue: Faculty of Education Lecture Theatre



Alignment Gaps in Science and Technology Curricula: Teacher Education vs Primary Education

More Panganayi, Madziwa Teachers’ College

Globally, it has been difficult to synchronize curricula in cases where two separate ministries of education and higher education exist.  Successful curriculum implementation is dependent on alignment of teacher education curriculum with primary and secondary school curriculum.  The purpose of this paper is to explore the skills needed by post O’ Level pre-service student teachers so that they can fully service the primary school science and technology curriculum (PSSCTC).  It also examines whether the primary teacher education science and technology curriculum (PTESTC) really addresses the acquisition of the needed skills.  Instead of having a synchronized approach, the PTESTC is diverging from PSSCTC. Through juxtaposing PTESTC against PSSCTC, this paper contributes towards addressing the alignment gaps that exist.  This paper argues that PTESTC should have aligned objectives to primary school science and technology syllabus.  It also revealed that the teaching approaches used in PTESTC do not add value to primary school science and technology teaching.  Analysis of PTESTC also revealed that no science and technology content is taught and students do not develop positive attitudes and responsible behavior towards community and environment. The whole course outline focuses on methodology of teaching Science and Technology and not content.  It is recommended that there must be synchronization of PTESTC with PSSCTC and much emphasis should be placed on content so that its mastery by the teachers is standardized.

Key terms: Educational alignment, science and technology curriculum, teaching approaches


An Integrated Approach to Teaching of Design and Technology at Primary School

Emily Motsi, Mavis Rufaro Chikoore, Henry Matienga and John Chakamba

Department of Technical Education, University of Zimbabwe

Design and technology is a new dimension that has been incorporated into the grade 3-7 Primary School Science and Technology syllabus aimed at inculcating among learners key life skills competencies and various desirable characteristics.  It comes with a set of expected outcomes where through Science and Technology, learners become innovative, adaptable, critical thinkers and creative problem solvers.  Under the new teaching and learning dispensation, pupils are therefore expected to be effective participants, or collaborative team players.  This is to be achieved through a learner centred, participatory, collaborative, integrated, and multisensory, problem identification and problem solving approaches.  Teachers are expected to be alert, well prepared and conscientised on how to manage learning in order to prepare learners with life skills required in the 21st century.  This paper will therefore explore how primary school teachers can use a multi-disciplinary approach to teaching through integrating different subject areas (mathematics, science, art, textiles, building, wood, metal and food technology) thus providing learners with opportunities to combine their scientific, logic, design, technical and artistic knowledge in a manner that enables them to understand and interact meaningfully with their natural world.  It is hoped that the paper will be useful to all primary school teachers teaching Design and Technology as well as their learners since it will demystify the field and provide an appropriate guide for its teaching and learning.

Key terms: Design and technology, life skills, multi-disciplinary approach,


Areas of Concern to Primary School Teachers on the Implementation of the Mathematics and Science Infant and Science and Technology Junior School Syllabi: Preliminary Findings of a Needs Assessment Study

Oswell Namasasu, Department of Science and Mathematics Education

Rosewitha Gatsi, Department of Teacher Education

University of Zimbabwe

This paper presents the preliminary findings of an on-going needs assessment study to identify areas of concern to primary school teachers on the implementation of mathematics, science and technology syllabi in the updated curriculum.  The study uses a mixed method approach based on face-to-face interviews, focus group discussions and questionnaires.  It covers purposively selected teachers from primary schools representing various school types such as group A (urban low density), group B (urban high density), trust (private), district council (rural), farm (rural), mine and mission schools.  It also includes in-service teachers enrolled on part-time B.Ed. (Primary and Early Childhood) degree programmes offered by the Department of Teacher Education.  The purpose of the study is two-fold.  First, it seeks to provide areas of focus for training workshops for practicing teachers which, if funding is obtained, can be conducted in partnership with the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education.  Second, it seeks to get student input in restructuring the existing B.Ed.  (Primary and Early Childhood) degree programmes so that they offer Science and Technology courses at infant and junior school.  The second aspect is the focus of this presentation.   Our B.Ed. students who are themselves practicing teachers in different regions of the country are participants in this study. Preliminary findings suggest that they find the following aims and objectives problematic: enhancing scientific and technological designs through the use of ICT; collecting and recording relevant data and information through scientific research; and designing, modifying technological devices using local and other materials.  They find the following topics difficult to teach: relationships in science and mathematics, materials and structure, electricity and electronics, forces and magnets, design and technology, weather and climate, landforms and maps, and sustainable resource management.  Project work and science exhibitions are rarely used as teaching methods at their schools.  The reasons given for this state of affairs include lack of resources and skills.  It is becoming apparent that they were not adequately prepared for many of the aims, objectives, topics and teaching methods of the new curriculum during their diploma studies.  This suggests a strong need for resources, in-service training workshops for practicing teachers and curriculum reform in teachers’ colleges and universities.

Key words:  needs assessment, in-service teachers, practicing teachers, B.Ed. (Primary and Early Childhood) degree programmes


Bridging Primary School Mathematics and Secondary School Mathematics through Ethnomathematics

Turugari Munamato and Tamirepi Farirai,

Workers’ University College

The Zimbabwe Primary School Mathematics Syllabus has the “space and shape” as one of its four strands.  The aim of the “space and shape” strand is to provide an opportunity for the primary school learners to gain knowledge of Geometry. The gained knowledge   enables the learners to recognise shapes in their environment.  However, in the teaching of Mathematics in primary school in Zimbabwe, the teaching of shapes does not extend to the teaching of transformation of shapes.  The transformation of shapes is a phenomenon which the learners observe in their daily lives. Traditionally the teaching of transformation of shapes is reserved for secondary school mathematics as if the concepts in transformation of shapes are too abstract to an extent that the primary school learners may not grasp these concepts.  Failure in mathematics in secondary school mathematics may be caused by the fact that such topics will be alien to the learners. This paper seeks to address the need to break the tradition of reserving such topics for secondary school mathematics.  The paper advocates to break the tradition in which some topics in mathematics are reserved for Secondary School Mathematics when in fact primary school learners can be introduced to them  ethno mathematically.  The paper explores ways in which ethnomathematics can be employed in the primary school for teaching concepts of transformation of shapes such as reflection, translation, rotation and enlargement so as to make mathematics curriculum continuous from primary school to secondary school.  The paper argues that primary school learners can solve transformation problems involving translation, rotation and enlargement when they are taught using games and the learners’ out of school mathematical practices. 

Key terms: Ethnomathematics, Transformation


Deconstructive-Reconstructive Analysis of the Zimbabwe Primary School Mathematics, Science and Technology Curriculum: A Paradigmatic Recourse

Onias Mutovosi

Mkoba Teachers’ College

The Zimbabwe Primary Science curriculum has gone through several review milestones.  With the promulgation of the ZimAsset national economic blueprint, a number of paradigms influenced an en-masse national curriculum review among which the Mathematics and Environmental Science syllabi were reviewed.  However, the updated curriculum appears to have oversights that may need a deconstructive – reconstructive analysis in light of a STEM economy.  This qualitative study examined the feasibility of an enhancement of the curriculum in the light of setting a firm STEM foundation.  The case study design was used to generate data from a sample of 16 participants inclusive of 12 primary school teachers from both infant and junior classes from 3 urban schools and 4 primary teachers college lecturers for Mathematics, and Science and Technology. Questionnaires and interviews are the instruments administered to purposively and conveniently sampled participants.  Research findings revealed that the current syllabi did not focus at laying a firm STEM foundation.  Time allocation and bunching of Mathematics and Science into one learning area for infants up to Grade 2 has more challenges than attainments.  The junior syllabus’ depth and breadth posed content challenge to teachers who trained without passes in ‘O’ Level Science.  The findings inform curriculum planners and teacher development institutions of the gaps and challenges that may need redress in a bid to enhance quality education for sustainable development.  The researcher thus recommends de-bunching of the junior syllabus and conducting workshops for knowledge enhancement among junior class teachers. 

Key terms: Primary curriculum; Mathematics syllabus; Science and Technology


ICT Tools and Primary School Mathematics Pedagogy: Troubling the Possibilities

Alfred Mutanga

Department of Computer Science, University of Zimbabwe

The research studies in mathematics education that involved cognitive apprenticeship are mainly face-to-face and the majority do not include undergraduate mathematics courses for primary school teachers.  Most of the researchers in mathematics education only specify the theories of learning or the theoretical approach behind the design, learning facilitation and inclusion of technological tools in their teaching strategy.  The process of the analysis and selection of the computing tools used in their research is in some cases not tied with pedagogical theoretical approaches.  This paper argues that analysing and selecting computing tools for teaching mathematics concepts using a theoretical framework make these tools to be viewed as pedagogy and not merely technological innovations.  A supportive theoretical framework is necessary to help in the selection, design and analysis of the ICT tools for the teaching of basic mathematical concepts, especially at primary school level.  The analysis, selection and design of the strategic integration of ICT tools in mathematics education for this research is based on Lorillard’s Conversational Framework

Key words: ICT tools, mathematics pedagogy, technological innovations


Implementing the Project-Based Approach within the Delivery of Science and Technology Education: Burdens and Benefits

Rosewitha Mbiriyakura and Tinashe Sibanda

Maranatha Junior School 

The teaching and learning process in the 21st Century is presenting demands that require a paradigm shift from the traditional approaches within the education system right from kindergarten through to infants and junior school education.  The trajectory of primary and secondary education in Zimbabwe has experienced a transition from a traditional to a new education delivery approach following the introduction of the new primary and secondary education curriculum (2015-2022).  This paper argues that the unfolding digital era presents a huge potential for enhancing the learner’s capacity for innovation and creativity in applying classroom-based theoretical material presented by the teacher.  Focusing on the project-based dimension of delivery of science and technology education, it evaluates its potential for transitioning learners from the traditional learning orientation of ‘acquiring knowledge’ from the teacher, towards ‘construction of knowledge’ by the learner through a computer-assisted, internet-based project approach to learning.  The paper further analyses the pros and cons and practical experiences of implementing the project-based approach to learning from a practitioner’s perspective.  The paper concludes that there is a huge possibility for variations of outcomes which may be explained by the varying contextual variables obtaining in different learning environments.   

Key words: innovation and creativity, project-based approach, practitioner’s perspective


Locating the Foundations of Science Technology in the Zimbabwean Curriculum: Implications on the implementation of Curriculum Framework 2015-2022

Peter Kwaira, Department of Technical Education, University of Zimbabwe

This paper is based on one of those studies conducted between 2016 and 2017, following adoption of the updated curriculum (The Zimbabwe Curriculum Blueprint/Framework 2015–2022).  In this case, the particular study in question was designed to establish the actual foundations of Science and Technology (S&T) in the Zimbabwean Curriculum. Besides this study being prompted by advent of the updated curriculum, it was also strongly motivated by the recent policy drive towards the promotion of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) related subjects across the curriculum, with particular emphasis on secondary school levels.  Yes, according to the theme of this workshop, the idea is to catch learners young by starting the teaching and learning of S&T from primary school.  While this is meaningful, the study on which this paper is based suggests sinking the foundation further and going even deeper into the roots of S&T Education.  This is where the important role that could be played by Early Childhood Development (ECD), in conjunction with the home comes in!  Having said that, the task was then to come up with ideas on how educationists (practitioners) at various levels could be assisted in identifying and developing mechanisms for the success of such a paradigm shift, in terms of approach to S&T Education.  The study involved the document/content analysis of various syllabi; from ECD up to tertiary.  However, given the thrust and focus of the study, the infant and junior school syllabi remained the core of analysis, upon which all the other syllabi could be brought into comparison.  Key findings showed the power and mystery of PLAY as an approach that could provide an important thread linking the teaching/learning of S&T from ECD to the rest of all the other levels in Zimbabwean curriculum.

Key terms: Paradigm shift, science and technology education, play, early childhood development



Re-Situating the Narrative within Unhu/Ubuntu Discourse: A Deconstructive Engagement

Ngoni Makuvaza

Department of Educational Foundations, University of Zimbabwe

The buzz word of this workshop is ‘catch them young’.  We find this buzz word quite apropos for any innovation at both micro and macro-levels. This is particularly so for the current MoPSE (2014-2022) updated curriculum which is in its initial stages of implementation.  This claim is based on the pedagogical axiom that; if any innovations to any curriculum are to be successful and sustainable it is proper that they should start with the young.  Instructively, we argue that success of the current thrust of the updated curriculum on science and technology rests on its implementation on the young.  Notwithstanding that the term young is as relative as it is problematic, in this paper we think the successful implementation of this thrust should start with the ECD.  Essentially, we posit that the successful and sustainable implementation and introduction of the science and technology initiative should start with the ECD age group.  However, the critical pedagogical question which begs an answer and which is the basis of this paper is; catch them young, but for what?  In other words, why introduce the ECD learners to science and technology education at such a tender age?  In interrogating this claim we present and defend the following theses namely; [a] Zimbabwe needs particular scientists and technologists and not mere scientists and technologists or ‘more of the same [b] to arrest the risk of having mere scientists and technologists, science and technology education even as it should be introduced at ECD level should be anchored on unhu/Ubuntu/vumunhu philosophy.  This paper draws insights from discourse on unhu/Ubuntu as a postcolonial moral narrative.

Key words: ECD, young, unhu/Ubuntu/vumunhu,virtues, flair, MoPSE, philosophy, axiology, deconstruct.


Scientists or Science Historians: What do we aim to Develop?

Pardon Shoko

Madziwa Teachers’ College

Never before has our world been so complex and science knowledge so critical to making sense of it all.  This calls for a people to educate its young ones in ways that not only develop scientific knowledge, but most importantly, an understanding of the biological and physical world, and an interest in and appreciation of how science and technology affect their lives and environment.  This paper seeks to answer the question whether our science curriculum develops such a person or not.  By analysing our Primary School Science and Technology syllabi, and comparing them with the American and Japanese Elementary School Science Curricula, it has been established that our content is shallow, our methodology does not promote the development of an enquiring mind, our classrooms are not adequately equipped for practical science lessons and our teachers cannot effectively teach the subject.  It therefore concludes that our science curriculum will not produce citizens who can become scientists or who can confidently take up careers in STEM fields.  A review of the curriculum, making it more practical than the story-like field it currently is, that is supported by the provision of material resources and expert human capital is recommended.

Key words: Scientists, science historians, an enquiring mind


Syllabus Interpretation, Teaching Methodologies and Wide Researches as Bases for Effective Teaching of Science and Technology at Junior Level in Primary Schools in Zimbabwe

Biggie Mpamhadzi

Morgenster Teachers’ College

The Science and Technology Junior syllabus has a number of new and complex concepts which need thorough analysis. This paper provides an example of concept analysis in the implementation of this syllabus using the Grade 3 topic Materials and Structures and Characteristics of Materials as the Key Concept.  It argues that the breaking down of concepts at this level has to be precise and consistent.  This enables the teacher to select the essential aspects of the concept.  The key concept does not delineate the parameters within which the teacher should be confined.  To break the key concept into appropriate sub concepts it is essential to focus on the objectives of the concept and the level of understanding of the learners and to make use of tangible scientific teaching aids which facilitate learning and develop in learners a curiosity to learn. The use of hands-on approaches in practical work can ease the teaching of the subject at junior level in Zimbabwe.

Key words: concept analysis, materials and structures, characteristics of materials, hands-on-approaches


Tapping the Tacit Knowledge in Playfield Swings to Learn Physics: A Case Study of Childhood Reflections by Preservice Teachers

Francis Mavhunga and Israel Kibirige

Department of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, University of Limpopo

Children experience physical phenomena and formulate an epistemological worldview before contact with school science. School science extends thought about the same phenomena to deeper levels but does not always link with out-of-school experiences. The study explored preservice teachers’ indigenous knowledge or tacit knowledge about the playground swing and its use to teach the physics of the simple pendulum. The preservice teachers’ indigenous knowledge experiences with playground swings may be a pivot for linking their physics teaching to out-of-school experiences. A phenomenological research design was used to explore experiences of eight preservice teachers. Data were collected using focus group interviews and personal interviews and were thematically analysed. Findings show that young players become aware of relationships between variables; they are attracted to the swings for specific reasons; they connect experiences at swings with physical laws. However, pre-service teachers are not able to connect this tacit knowledge with formal science. Yet, teachers should realise that school physics explains everyday experiences which they know in their vernacular. The lack of such a link may disadvantage learners to understand ideas expressed in English, which is not their mother tongue. Thus, teachers need to link indigenous tacit knowledge with school physics in order to develop effective teaching strategies.

Keywords: Tacit knowledge, swing, pendulum, vernacular, indigenous knowledge. 


Teacher Education: Key To Improved Primary School Mathematics

Irene Matereke, Morgenster Teachers’ College

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of student -teachers at selected Primary teacher education institutions about the adequacy of the mathematics teacher education program in preparing them to teach mathematics in primary schools. The researcher noted that performance in primary school mathematics has remained very low. On the other hand, student-teachers perform poorly in their mathematics professional studies tests which involve mainly, primary school mathematics. The research adopted the case study with mixed method approach.  The quantitative data used played a pivotal role in supporting the qualitative aspects of the research. The sample for the study involved twenty- one student teachers on teaching practice and nine in their final residential phase. Findings suggest that student- teachers at primary teacher education institutions perceive a need for teacher education mathematics course to be contextualized and aligned to primary school mathematics. The program also needs to focus on the development of subject matter content, pedagogical content and professional skills before student teachers are released for their practicum. The study provides a framework of re-conceptualizing mathematics teacher education programs and raised critical issues teacher educators need to address in order to ensure that student teachers are adequately prepared for classroom mathematics teaching.

Key words: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), teacher education, professional studies tests, mathematics preparation program


The Imperative of a Shift in Mathematics Teaching in Zimbabwean Schools:  A Case for Teaching through Problem Solving

Joseph Vere

Department of Science and Mathematics Education, University of Zimbabwe

Many, possibly most, mathematics educators see the need to shift from the popular, teacher centred approach to mathematics teaching in Zimbabwean schools, to a constructivist approach. The more extreme form of the former approach is characterized by rote learning of mathematics facts, rules and procedures, and their application in repetitive drill, and routine exercises. In the constructivist approach on the other hand, learners are provided with ample opportunities for exploration and constructing meaning for themselves, discovering and justifying generalizations, and solving non-routine problems. It should be quite obvious why the constructivist approach would be preferable, both in terms of providing worthwhile, enjoyable mathematics learning experiences, and also in terms of producing desirable learning outcomes. The critical thinking, adaptable workforce required in the 21st Century is likely to emerge from a constructivist, rather than from a teacher dominated mathematics classroom. Why then are most Zimbabwean mathematics teachers apparently reluctant to change their approach? Anecdotal evidence points to a variety of reasons, such as an unwillingness to abandon a teaching model perceived to be ‘effective’. Despite this, the paper makes a case for adopting of a constructivist, problem solving approach--referred to, for convenience, as TMTPS (Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving). In making the case, the approach is defined, justified, some practical, implementation suggestions made, and the issue of possible negative reactions is addressed. Wherever appropriate, discussion is enriched by the inclusion of lessons learnt by the writer during his involvement in an ongoing TMTPS related project

Keywords: Constructivist; Teaching mathematics through problem solving; Non-routine mathematical problem solving.


Towards a Holistic Approach in Science and Technology Instruction for the Hearing Impaired: A Challenge for Zimbabwean Primary Schools

Ester Rutoro

Morgenster Teachers’ College

For Zimbabwe to succeed in its drive towards economic recovery, Science and Technology needs to be taken at the centre stage. It is with this in mind that there has been a significant paradigm shift in the primary education sector. Science and Technology has been added as a core subject to build a firm foundation for science and technology education in secondary schools. However, the needs of a significant proportion of the primary school learner population have been ignored: learners living with hearing impairment. There is a glaring gap in the language used by these learners on Science and Technology concepts. Thus, there is a challenge as these learners are being left far behind in the new Science and Technology era. It is upon this background that this paper explores challenges faced by learners with hearing impairment and the teachers who offer instruction to these learners in implementing the Science and Technology curriculum. The research was done in Masvingo District and a sample of five schools was purposively sampled. Out of the five schools one is a special school. The aspects explored in this paper are: Science and Technology language gap, teacher competency in implementing Science and Technology curriculum to the hearing impaired, methodological considerations, resource constraints, time allocation for the implementation, and capacity of schools who have learners living with hearing impairment. This research is to a large extent grounded in the qualitative research paradigm as the researcher explored perspectives of teachers on the feasibility of effectively implementing the Science and Technology curriculum to the hearing impaired learners in Zimbabwe’s primary schools. However some quantitative analysis of test results was also done. Research methods used for data collection are the interview, document analysis, questionnaire and observations. Research assistants from the special needs school were involved in this research in order to gain an in depth perspective into the challenges of having a holistic Science and Technology instruction to hearing impaired learners. The paper was concluded by offering recommendations for a holistic approach in the teaching of Science and technology to the hearing impaired at primary school level. One major recommendation offered by this research was to explore the possibility of a Science and Technology sign language dictionary.

Key terms: Science, Technology, sign language, hearing impairment

Towards the Development of Monolingual Dictionaries for Mother Tongue Instruction in Mathematics and Science at Infant School (ECD to Grade 2): A Concept Paper

Oswell Namasasu

Department of Science and Mathematics Education, University of Zimbabwe

Emmanuel Chabata

African Languages Research Institute, University of Zimbabwe

Eventhough Ndlovu, Loveson Gopo and Rambisai Kandawasvika-Chivandikwa

Department of African Languages and Literature, University of Zimbabwe

The Monolingual Dictionary Project for Mother Tongue Instruction in Mathematics and Science at Infant School seeks to empower classroom teachers to conduct lessons and develop curriculum materials in indigenous languages.  The project will build upon the foundations laid by general bilingual dictionaries such as A Basic English Shona Dictionary (Dale, 1975) Standard Shona Dictionary (Hannan, 1984),  monolingual general dictionaries such as Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (Chimhundu, 2001) and Isichazamazwi sesiNdebele (Hadebe, 2001), bilingual specialized dictionaries such as Duramazwi Resainzi Nehumhizha  ReChirungu NeChishona (Chetsanga, 2014) and The Standard Shona – English Dictionary of Names (Kahari, 2016), and monolingual specialized dictionaries such as Duramazwi reUrapi neUtano (Mpofu, Chimhundu, Mangoya and Chabata, 2004) and Duramazwi Remimhanzi (Mheta, 2005).   Its expected outcome is the production of the first monolingual specialized dictionary that is designed to support mother tongue instruction in mathematics, technology and science to beginning primary school learners in the context of Zimbabwe’s New Curriculum Framework 2015-2022.  Both headwords and explanations will be in the mother tongue but a glossary and index in English will be provided.  The project seeks to contribute to the creation of conditions necessary for the development of indigenous languages by promoting and advancing their use in early childhood education for learners whose first language is not English.  By the end of the project, all of the country’s indigenous languages should have monolingual specialized mathematics, technology and science dictionaries for the early grades at primary school.  This way, effective learning of mathematics, science and technology can begin at an early age rather than be postponed to a time when learners are considered to have mastered sufficient English for by then some may have even lost interest in mathematics, science and technology altogether.

Key terms: mother tongue instruction, monolingual, bilingual, general dictionary, specialized dictionary, monolingual specialized dictionary





You are cordially invited to prepare and present papers at the Science and Technology at Primary School Workshop to be hosted by the Department of Science and Mathematics Education on the 6th of July 2018 in the Education Lecture Theatre from 8.00 am to 1.00 pm.

Topics and abstracts should be sent by 15 June to Dr Oswell Namasasu.

Cell: 0775996767 Email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Zimbabwe needs a strong foundation in science and technology education if it is to become a modern and industrialized nation. Yet performance in secondary school science and technology subjects has generally been unsatisfactory as evidenced by ZIMSEC results.  Currently, the University of Zimbabwe is failing to get students with high grades in its science and technology programmes.  The problem does not necessarily start at secondary school level but goes deeper to the foundation laid in science and technology education at primary school level, hence the theme of the workshop: Catching them young: Science and Technology at Primary School  


  1. To identify areas of concern to practicing teachers in the implementation of the science and technology primary school syllabi.
  2. To provide a platform for university academics, college lecturers, Ministry officials, and practicing teachers to share experiences and reflect on challenges in primary science and technology education and
  3. To provide supplementary resources in content areas not adequately covered by existing curriculum materials.

Expected Outcome

The expected outcome of the workshop is a special issue of the Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research (ZJER) on Science and Technology at Primary School to be published by the Human Resources Research Centre of the University of Zimbabwe.  The publication has the potential to contribute to much needed resource materials for the Mathematics and Science Infant Syllabus (Grades 0-2) and Science and Technology Junior Syllabus (Grades 3-7) in the new Curriculum Framework for Primary and Secondary Education, 2015 – 2022.

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